The last lover of the Empress – Іван Корсак

In the Russian Empire, the office of Cossack Hetman was abolished by Catherine II of Russia in 1764. The last Hetman of the Zaporozhian Army (the formal title of the Hetman of Ukraine) was Kyrylo Rozumovsky who reigned from 1751 until 1764.

Metropolitan – is a head of an ecclesiastical province, ranking between archbishop and patriarch (Orthodox Eastern Church); an archbishop (Western Church).

Rzeczpospolita (disambiguation) is a traditional name of the Polish State, usually referred to as Rzeczpospolita Polska (Polish Rzeczpospolita). It comes from the words: “rzecz” (thing) and “pospolita” (common), literally, a “common thing”. It comes from latin word “respublica”, meaning simply “republic” (“res” – thing, “publica” – public, common). In terms of etymology and meaning, the closest English term is “commonwealth” (i.e. “common wealth”, “common good”), but a more modern translation is republic (a form of governance).

The term “Rzeczpospolita” has been used in Poland since beginning of the 16th century. Originally it was a generic term to denote a state or a commonness. The famous quote by Jan Zamoyski, the Lord Chancellor of the Crown, on the importance of education, is a great example of its use.

The meaning of Polish term “Rzeczpospolita” is well described by the term “Commonwealth”. As a result the literal meaning of “Rzeczpospolita Polska” is “Polish Commonwealth”, or “Republic of Poland”. However, the connotation with the term “republic” may be somewhat misleading in a context of Polish State within period from 16th to 18th century, because Poland in that time was an elective monarchy and the “Rzeczpospolita” was reflected in the official name, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Shlisselburg is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, 35 kilometers east of St. Petersburg. From 1944 to 1992, it was known as Petrokrepost. The first fortification was built in 1299 by Lord High Constable of Sweden Torgils Knutsson but was lost to the Novgorodians in 1301. A wooden fortress named Oreshek was built by Grand Prince Yury of Moscow in 1323. Twenty-five years later, King Magnus Eriksson attacked and briefly took the fortress during his crusade in the region (1348–1352). It was largely ruined by the time the Novgorodians retook the fortress in 1351. The fortress was rebuilt in stone in 1352 by Archbishop Vasilii Kalika of Novgorod (1330–1352). In 1702, during the Great Northern War, the fortress was taken by Russians under Peter the Great. During the times of Imperial Russia, the fortress was used as a notorious political prison; among its famous prisoners were Wilhelm Küchelbecker, Mikhail Bakunin and, for 38 years, Walerian Łukasiński. Ivan VI of Russia was murdered in the fortress in 1764, and Lenin’s brother, Aleksandr Ulyanov, was hanged there too.

Zaporizhian Sich – the appearance of the “Zaporizhian Sich” is inseparably bound up with the formation of Cossacks as a separate social stratum with its own traditions and way of life. This process was the direct result of a continuos struggle between settled farmers and the nomadic tribes ruled by the Crimean Khan and the Turkish Sultan. The word “sich” comes from the Ukrainian verb “sikty,” meaning to chop up, cut – and the Zaporizhian Cossacks made their fortifications of wood, falling trees and cutting branches in the nearby forest.

Малюнки, фото

3 ст. “Rostov metropolitan Arceniy Matsievich”

4 ст. “Stepan Sheshkovskiy, famous expert of secret affairs”

5 ст. “Alexander Glebov. Hold office of attorney-general in 1761-1764”

6 ст. “The Kiev Mohyla Academy”

7 ст. “View of Brotherhood Monastery till 1864”

10 ст. “Alexey Bestuzhev-Rumin”

11 ст. “Building of Synod in Petersburg”

14 ст. “Graph Alexey Orlov-Chesmenskiy”

15 ст. “Graph Orlov’s emblem”

16 ст. “Emperor Peter III”

18 ст. “Graph Alexey Bobrinskiy”

19 ст. “Stanislav-August Ponyatovskiy – the last Polish king”

20 ст. “Emperor Ivan Antonovich and governess Anna Leopoldovna”

21 ст. “Vitus Bering”

21 ст. “Kamchatka. Places of Bering’s expeditions”

22 ст. “View of Tobolsk Kremlin”

23 ст. “Tobolsk Kremlin. East view (from left to right): east square tower; monastic housing; round Orlov tower”

25 ст. “The only intravital portrait of Peter Kalnyshevskiy. Fragment of icon “Protection of the Virgin” from Sechevoy Pokrov Church”

26 ст. “View of the Kiev Mohyla Academy”

27 ст. “Empress Elizabeth”

28 ст. “St. Sophia’s Cathedral”

30 ст. “Mikhail Lomonosov”

31 ст. “Feofan Prokopovich”

34 ст. “View of Ferapont Monastery”

35 ст. “Arceniy Matsievich in prison”

36 ст. “Voltaire Francois-Marie Arouet”

40 ст. “Fortress Revel”

кольорові малюнки, фото

“Icon painting image of Saint Arceniy”

“View of the river Luga near Vladimir-Volinskiy”

“Icon painting image of Saint Arceniy”

“Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir-Volinskiy”

“Cossacks’ sending off” N. Pimonenko. 1902”

“Settlement plan of Zaporozhye Sergeant Nikita Korzh on the river Sura” XVIII”

“Zaporozhye farm” Postcard, beginning of XX cen.”

“Cossacks before the campaign” Unknown painter, 1911”

42 ст. “Grigoriy Orlov, favourite of Catherine II”

43 ст. “Spassky Tower of Moscow Kremlin”

46 ст. “Shlisselburg fortress”

50 ст. “Portrait of Nikita Panin” Unknown Russian painter, XVIII, canvas”

58 ст. “Yaroslavl Kremlin”

60 ст. “Cossack boats on the Dnieper”

61 ст. “Mirovich’s emblem”

63 ст. “Marching mace. XVII – beginning of XVIII cen.”

64 ст. “Election of Kosh Otaman. S. Danilevsky “Last Cossacks”. Engraving”

70 ст. “Cossack camp, protected by carts”

72 ст. “French King Louis XV”

74 ст. “Palace of the Crimean Khans in Bakhchisaray”

75 ст. “Zaporozhian wintering”

77 ст. “Levko Matsievich – Ukrainian naval architect, author of many ship designs, submarines, mine barriers and etc.; politician. The first Ukrainian aviator. One of his ancestors is Arceniy Matsievich”

92 ст. “Voznesensk Monastery near Irkutsk”

92 ст. “A panoramic picture of Nerchinsk. Beginning of XVIII cen.”

93 ст. “View of town Nerchinsk. Engraving of M. Mahaev. XVIII cen.”

94 ст. “Deni Diderot”

97 ст. “Alexander Radishchev”

98 ст. “Kazimierz Waliszewski, Polish historian, writer, publicist”

101 ст. “Nikolay Novikov, public man, publisher”

с. 104 “Yemelyan Pugachev”

с. 105 “Peter and Paul Fortress”

c. 106 “Princess Elizabeth Tarakanova”

c. 108 “View of Gdansk-Danzig (circa 1789)”

c. 115 “Zaporizhian Sich”

кольорові фото:

“Petro Kalnyshevsky” “Pokrovskaya Church, built on Kalnyshevsky’s donations”

“The last Rada on Sich. V. Kovalev. End of the XIX century”

“Cover of Saint Virgin” with the image of the last Kosh Otaman of Zaporizhian Sich Petro Kalnyshevsky and Cossack Rada. 1886. Copy XVIII century”

“Princess Tarakanova”. K. Flavitskiy, 1864, canvas, oil”

“Portrait of metropolitan of Rostov and Yaroslavl Dmitriy. Unknown artist. XVIII century”

“Feofan Prokopovich”

c. 117 “Bowery of Zaporizhian troops on the Dnieper River. Photo. 1916”

c. 119 “Tadeush Kostyushko (1746-1817) in a major-general coat of crown troops of “Rzeczpospolita with American order Cincinata for participation in the war of independence of United States”

c. 120 “Pestilential riot. Moscow metropolitan Ambrose died in it. 1771. Watercolor of E. Lissner. End of XIX century”

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