Іван Корсак - The last lover of the Empress (сторінка 24)

Завантажити матеріал у повному обсязі:
ФайлРозмір файла:Завантажень
Скачать этот файл (Ivan_korsak_The_last_lover_of_the_Empress.docx)Ivan_korsak_The_last_lover_of_the_Empress.docx154 Кб2317
Lord Arceniy established not only Seminary in Yaroslavl but also enamel industry in Great Rostov. Saint Arceniy taught some painters (iconographers) of his bishop’s house in Rostov an art of painting on enamel. These works, made in a small workshop, were then used to decorate pontificalia and ornaments and were called enamel. Another event was of a tremendous value. In 1752 relics of St. Demetrios were got, Rostov metropolitan, and in 1757 canonization of this sainted took place. Rostov became Russian spiritual center again, and it became a busy place of pilgrimage. Enterprising Rostov inhabitants began to rent rooms and apartments at that time, and all visitors wanted to take something as a souvenir of their arrival in Rostov. The art of masters with enamel from bishop’s house came in handy then. They began to paint enamel images of St. Demetrios, and of others saint people of Rostov who were celebrated during centuries. Mastery of artists strengthened, and soon all Orthodox Russia was provided with enamel icons from Rostov. Later more than one hundred people from Rostov began to work in this truly national industry. No doubt, painters on enamel from Rostov found their heavenly patrons in the face of St. Demetrios and Arceniy.

New empress Catherine freed the nobility from compulsory state service, but at the same time she forgot to free peasants who served them. She decided to subordinate completely the Orthodox Church to the public interests. Nobody resisted, but St. Arceniy. Probably, he never betrayed that he believed in. The case took a political turn and the saint metropolitan of Rostov was defrocked and sent into exile to Arkhangelsk region. It was in 1763, and then his independence of mind and behavior moved the empress to do more severely with him. He was hopelessly imprisoned in the fortress tower in Tallinn and died from hunger when they stopped his feeding. Martyr Arceniy was never afraid of work and hardship, he was at the height of the throne of metropolitan of Rostov, he could find force and desire to repeat feat of the ancient hermits and holy fools. He was sunk into political obscurity in Russian Empire, and he was posthumously restored to the rank of metropolitan of Rostov at the Local Council of the Russian Church in 1917-18, and at the same Council in 2000 he was sainted. So we see that besides heavenly glory, St. Arceniy left a significant mark in history and culture of the ancient and sacred Rostov.

Chapel dedicated to St. Arceniy is situated in Monastery of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Great Rostov. This day marks 235 years since the righteous death of a father confessor St. Arceniy Matsievich, metropolitan of Rostov.”

 

***

 

 Metropolitan Hilarion (Ogienko):

State Moscow power, basically the highest authority, beginning from Peter I, began to persecute cruelly the Orthodox Faith and Church, both Russian and Ukrainian, to persecute openly and consciously. State power was seized by Germans-Protestants who did their best to suppress Orthodoxy.

Orthodox Church was falling and nobody could protect it… St. Dimitriy Tuptalo, metropolitan of Rostov died in 1709, so, who would protect further?

But there was a defender who shouted in a loud voice for all of Ukraine and for all of Russia, and stood up for the Orthodox Church.

It was metropolitan of Rostov Arceniy Matsievich, who came from Volyn, one of successors of St. Dimitriy Tuptalo on Department of Rostov.

The Church seemed to be falling and nobody could protect it. But it just seemed. Because God’s Church is immortal and hell forces can’t win It.

“While the Spirit of Grace is with the Church (and It will be with true Church until the end of the world), whatever the Zeitgeist is, zealots of the Spirit of Christ will always be in the Church!” – archbishop of Chernigov Philaret Gumilevsky wrote.

Metropolitan Arceniy Matsievich was such zealot of the Spirit of Christ.

Higher secular Russian power had been oppressing Orthodox Church sarcastically in XVIII, strongly humiliating It. Basically it was a German-Protestant power which ridiculed the Orthodox faith, despised its rites. During this period Russian power was destroying the freedom of Christ in the Church gradually, step by step, it consistently subordinated the Church to a secular power, bcause its head had been Russian czar since the time of Peter I. And Orthodox Church in Russia became the department of professions in Home Office.

Faith itself among the Russian intelligentsia was destroyed in the bud, and Russian intelligentsia became become if not an atheist, then quite indifferent to the Church. Moreover, a deep disrespect to clergy originated in Russia, ridicule as a class. Ridicule of Priest began in literature, it had never stopped in Russia.

During the reign of Catherine II, German-Protestant, even an atheist, the clergy was struck a blow financially, it was subordinated to mercy of parishioners. They took away the Church possessions, and Clergy became mendicant. Catherine II deliberately stroke a killing blow at the credibility of the Clergy and made it beggar.

Sources of Russian Communism are laid down in church politics of czars and czarinas of XVII century – they prepared fertile soil in Russia for the perception of communism.

And metropolitan-Ukrainian Arceniy Matsievich appeared as a great spiritual knight, confessor martyr in Orthodox Church of that time. He began a courageous struggle against the church communism propagated by the ruling elite in Russia. Metropolitan Arceniy Matsievich devoted his entire life to move lofty Ideals of Ukrainian Orthodox Church to Moscow Church. He wasn’t able to do this, because dark forces in Russia proved to be stronger …

And Metropolitan disappeared on his glorious way, being immured alive in prison. Czarina Catherine destroyed the Metropolitan and Confessor – and she was shouting with laughter. Her laugh is heard today in the laugh of Communists…

Reader will learn about it from my book.

Work of Ukrainian Hierarchs of the Russian Church is a great and hard work, it is not developed in Ukrainian literature. But we have to know it, and I want to show it in detail on the example of Metropolitan Arceniy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GLOSSARY

 

Ataman (Kosh Otaman) – was a commander title of the Ukrainian People’s Army, Cossack, and Haidamak leaders, who were in essence the Cossacks. At the end of the sixteenth century, the commanders of the Zaporizhian Cossacks were called Koshovyi Otaman or Hetmans.

Cossack – a member of a national group of South Russia, famous as horsemen and cavalrymen. The descendants of Russian and Ukrainian serfs, the Cossacks settled on the steppes (16th c.), establishing the Ukraine as a separate state. The word Cossack means a free and independent man. Cossacks were first mentioned in writing in 1492. In the sixteenth century the Cossacks united in a single military organization. The first fortifications were built on Mala Khortytsia Island, in the lower reachers of the Dnieper, behind the rapids, where the rocky river bed made navigation hard and risky. Hence, the name “Zaporizhya” (“Beyond-the-Rapids”).

Hetman was the title of the second-highest military commander (after the monarch) in 15th- to 18th-century Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which together, from 1569 to 1795, comprised the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, or Rzeczpospolita.

“Hetman” was also the highest military office, and head of state, in Ukraine’s Cossack Hetmanate. The title was used by Ukraine’s Cossacks from the 16th century, and by the Czechs (hejtman) in Bohemia from the Hussite Wars (15th century) on. Hejtman is today the term for the elected governor of a Czech region (kraj).

In 1572, the hetman was a commander of the Registered Cossack Army of the Rzecz Pospolita too. From 1648, the start of Bohdan Khmelnytsky’s uprising, a hetman was the head of the whole Ukrainian State - Hetmanshchyna. Although they were elected, Ukrainian Hetmans had very broad powers and acted as heads of the Cossack state, their supreme military commanders, and top legislators (by issuing administrative decrees).

After the split of Ukraine along the Dnieper River by the 1667 Polish-Russian Treaty of Andrusovo, Ukrainian Cossacks (and Cossack Hetmans) became known as Left-bank Cossacks (of the Cossack Hetmanate) and Right-bank Cossacks.

In the Russian Empire, the office of Cossack Hetman was abolished by Catherine II of Russia in 1764. The last Hetman of the Zaporozhian Army (the formal title of the Hetman of Ukraine) was Kyrylo Rozumovsky who reigned from 1751 until 1764.

 

Metropolitan – is a head of an ecclesiastical province, ranking between archbishop and patriarch (Orthodox Eastern Church); an archbishop (Western Church).

 

Rzeczpospolita (disambiguation) is a traditional name of the Polish State, usually referred to as Rzeczpospolita Polska (Polish Rzeczpospolita). It comes from the words: “rzecz” (thing) and “pospolita” (common), literally, a “common thing”. It comes from latin word “respublica”, meaning simply “republic” (“res” – thing, “publica” – public, common). In terms of etymology and meaning, the closest English term is “commonwealth” (i.e. “common wealth”, “common good”), but a more modern translation is republic (a form of governance).

The term “Rzeczpospolita” has been used in Poland since beginning of the 16th century. Originally it was a generic term to denote a state or a commonness. The famous quote by Jan Zamoyski, the Lord Chancellor of the Crown, on the importance of education, is a great example of its use.

The meaning of Polish term “Rzeczpospolita” is well described by the term “Commonwealth”. As a result the literal meaning of “Rzeczpospolita Polska” is “Polish Commonwealth”, or “Republic of Poland”. However, the connotation with the term “republic” may be somewhat misleading in a context of Polish State within period from 16th to 18th century, because Poland in that time was an elective monarchy and the “Rzeczpospolita” was reflected in the official name, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

 

Shlisselburg is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, 35 kilometers east of  St. Petersburg. From 1944 to 1992, it was known as Petrokrepost. The first fortification was built in 1299 by Lord High Constable of Sweden Torgils Knutsson but was lost to the Novgorodians in 1301. A wooden fortress named Oreshek was built by Grand Prince Yury of Moscow in 1323. Twenty-five years later, King Magnus Eriksson attacked and briefly took the fortress during his crusade in the region (1348–1352). It was largely ruined by the time the Novgorodians retook the fortress in 1351. The fortress was rebuilt in stone in 1352 by Archbishop Vasilii Kalika of Novgorod (1330–1352). In 1702, during the Great Northern War, the fortress was taken by Russians under Peter the Great. During the times of Imperial Russia, the fortress was used as a notorious political prison; among its famous prisoners were Wilhelm Küchelbecker, Mikhail Bakunin and, for 38 years, Walerian Łukasiński. Ivan VI of Russia was murdered in the fortress in 1764, and Lenin’s brother, Aleksandr Ulyanov, was hanged there too.

 

Zaporizhian Sich – the appearance of the “Zaporizhian Sich” is inseparably bound up with the formation of Cossacks as a separate social stratum with its own traditions and way of life. This process was the direct result of a continuos struggle between settled farmers and the nomadic tribes ruled by the Crimean Khan and the Turkish Sultan. The word “sich” comes from the Ukrainian verb “sikty,” meaning to chop up, cut – and the  Zaporizhian Cossacks made their fortifications of wood, falling trees and cutting branches in the nearby forest.

Малюнки, фото

 

3 ст. “Rostov metropolitan Arceniy Matsievich”

4 ст. “Stepan Sheshkovskiy, famous expert of secret affairs”

5 ст. “Alexander Glebov. Hold office of attorney-general in 1761-1764”

6 ст. “The Kiev Mohyla Academy”

7 ст. “View of  Brotherhood Monastery till 1864”

10 ст. “Alexey Bestuzhev-Rumin”

11 ст. “Building of Synod in Petersburg”

14 ст. “Graph Alexey Orlov-Chesmenskiy”

15 ст. “Graph Orlov’s emblem”

16 ст. “Emperor Peter III”

18 ст. “Graph Alexey Bobrinskiy”

19 ст. “Stanislav-August Ponyatovskiy – the last Polish king”

20 ст. “Emperor Ivan Antonovich and governess Anna Leopoldovna”

21 ст. “Vitus Bering”

21 ст. “Kamchatka. Places of Bering’s expeditions”

22 ст. “View of Tobolsk Kremlin”

23 ст. “Tobolsk Kremlin. East view (from left to right): east square tower; monastic housing; round Orlov tower”

25 ст. “The only intravital portrait of Peter Kalnyshevskiy. Fragment of icon “Protection of the Virgin” from Sechevoy Pokrov Church”

26 ст. “View of the Kiev Mohyla Academy”

27 ст. “Empress Elizabeth”

28 ст. “St. Sophia’s Cathedral”

30 ст. “Mikhail Lomonosov”

31 ст. “Feofan Prokopovich”

34 ст. “View of  Ferapont Monastery”

35 ст. “Arceniy Matsievich in prison”

36 ст. “Voltaire Francois-Marie Arouet”

40 ст. “Fortress Revel”

кольорові малюнки, фото

“Icon painting image of Saint Arceniy”

“View of the river Luga near Vladimir-Volinskiy”

“Icon painting image of Saint Arceniy”

“Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir-Volinskiy”

“Cossacks’ sending off” N. Pimonenko. 1902”

“Settlement plan of Zaporozhye Sergeant Nikita Korzh on the river Sura” XVIII”

“Zaporozhye farm” Postcard, beginning of XX cen.”

“Cossacks before the campaign” Unknown painter, 1911”

42 ст. “Grigoriy Orlov, favourite of Catherine II”

43 ст. “Spassky Tower of Moscow Kremlin”

46 ст. “Shlisselburg fortress”

50 ст. “Portrait of Nikita Panin” Unknown Russian painter, XVIII, canvas”

58 ст. “Yaroslavl Kremlin”

60 ст. “Cossack boats on the Dnieper”

61 ст. “Mirovich’s emblem”

63 ст. “Marching mace. XVII – beginning of XVIII cen.”

64 ст. “Election of Kosh Otaman. S. Danilevsky “Last Cossacks”. Engraving”

70 ст. “Cossack camp, protected by carts”

72 ст. “French King Louis XV”

74 ст. “Palace of the Crimean Khans in Bakhchisaray”

75 ст. “Zaporozhian wintering”

77 ст. “Levko Matsievich – Ukrainian naval architect, author of many ship designs, submarines, mine barriers and etc.; politician. The first Ukrainian aviator. One of his ancestors is Arceniy Matsievich”

92 ст. “Voznesensk Monastery near Irkutsk”

92 ст. “A panoramic picture of Nerchinsk. Beginning of XVIII cen.”

93 ст. “View of town Nerchinsk. Engraving of M. Mahaev. XVIII cen.”

94 ст. “Deni Diderot”

97 ст. “Alexander Radishchev”

98 ст. “Kazimierz Waliszewski, Polish historian, writer,       publicist”

101 ст. “Nikolay Novikov, public man, publisher”

с. 104 “Yemelyan Pugachev”

с. 105 “Peter and Paul Fortress”

c. 106 “Princess Elizabeth Tarakanova”

c. 108 “View of Gdansk-Danzig (circa 1789)”

c. 115 “Zaporizhian Sich”

кольорові фото:

“Petro Kalnyshevsky”  “Pokrovskaya Church, built on Kalnyshevsky’s donations”

“The last Rada on Sich. V. Kovalev. End of the XIX century”

“Cover of Saint Virgin” with the image of the last Kosh Otaman of Zaporizhian Sich Petro Kalnyshevsky and Cossack Rada. 1886. Copy XVIII century”

“Princess Tarakanova”. K. Flavitskiy, 1864, canvas, oil”

“Portrait of metropolitan of Rostov and Yaroslavl Dmitriy. Unknown artist. XVIII century”

“Feofan Prokopovich”

c. 117 “Bowery of Zaporizhian troops on the Dnieper River. Photo. 1916”

c. 119 “Tadeush Kostyushko (1746-1817) in a major-general coat of crown troops of “Rzeczpospolita with American order Cincinata for participation in the war of independence of United States”

c. 120 “Pestilential riot. Moscow metropolitan Ambrose died in it. 1771. Watercolor of E. Lissner. End of XIX century”

c. 124 “Pavel Petrovich, crown-prince”

c. 125 “Russian emperor Pavel I”

c. 134 “Revolt in New Sich on the 26th of December, 1768”

c. 141 “Ledger of Kosh Otaman Petro Kalnyshevsky in Solovetsk monastery”

c. 153 “Zaporizhian house in village Kapulivka. XVIII century”

Сторінка 24 з 24 Показати всі сторінки << На початок < 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 > У кінець >>

Пошук на сайті: